|Short Name:||Johann Crüger|
|Full Name:||Crüger, Johann, 1598-1662|
Crüger, Johann, was born April 9, 1598, at Gross-Breese, near Guben, Brandenburg. After passing through the schools at Guben, Sorau and Breslau, the Jesuit College at Olmütz, and the Poets' school at Regensburg, he made a tour in Austria, and, in 1615, settled at Berlin. There, save for a short residence at the University of Wittenberg, in 1620, he employed himself as a private tutor till 1622. In 1622 he was appointed Cantor of St. Nicholas's Church at Berlin, and also one of the masters of the Greyfriars Gymnasium. He died at Berlin Feb. 23, 1662. Crüger wrote no hymns, although in some American hymnals he appears as "Johann Krüger, 1610,” as the author of the supposed original of C. Wesley's " Hearts of stone relent, relent " (q.v.). He was one of the most distinguished musicians of his time. Of his hymn tunes, which are generally noble and simple in style, some 20 are still in use, the best known probably being that to "Nun danket alle Gott" (q.v.), which is set to No. 379 in H. A. & M. , ed. 1875. His claim to notice in this work is as editor and contributor to several of the most important German hymnological works of the 16th cent., and these are most conveniently treated of under his name. (The principal authorities on his works are Dr. J. F. Bachmann's Zur Geschichte der Berliner Gesangbücher 1857; his Vortrag on P. Gerhard, 1863; and his edition of Gerhardt's Geistliche Lieder, 1866. Besides these there are the notices in Bode, and in R. Eitner's Monatshefte für Musik-Geschichte, 1873 and 1880). These works are :—
1. Newes vollkömmliches Gesangbuch, Augspur-gischer Confession, &c, Berlin, 1640 [Library of St. Nicholas's Church, Berlin], with 248 hymns, very few being published for the first time.
2. Praxis pietatis melica. Das ist: Ubung der Gottseligkeit in Christlichen und trostreichen Gesängen. The history of this, the most important work of the century, is still obscure. The 1st edition has been variously dated 1640 and 1644, while Crüger, in the preface to No. 3, says that the 3rd edition appeared in 1648. A considerable correspondence with German collectors and librarians has failed to bring to light any of the editions which Koch, iv. 102, 103, quotes as 1644, 1647, 1649, 1650, 1651, 1652, 1653. The imperfect edition noted below as probably that of 1648 is the earliest Berlin edition we have been able to find. The imperfect edition, probably ix.
of 1659, formerly in the hands of Dr. Schneider of Schleswig [see Mützell, 1858, No. 264] was inaccessible. The earliest perfect Berlin edition we have found is 1653.
The edition printed at Frankfurt in 1656 by Caspar Röteln was probably a reprint of a Berlin edition, c. 1656. The editions printed at Frankfurt-am-Main by B. C. Wust (of which the 1666 is in the preface described as the 3rd) are in considerable measure independent works.
In the forty-five Berlin and over a dozen Frankfurt editions of this work many of the hymns of P. Gerhardt, J. Franck, P. J. Spener, and others, appear for the first time, and therein also appear many of the best melodies of the period. As these Berlin and Frankfurt editions are constantly referred to throughout this work, in the notes on German hymns, we subjoin a list of all the editions we have found (not noting duplicates), at present (1887) existing, as follows :—Edition Date Hymns Edition Date Hymns iii. 1648 387 xxviii. 1698 1163 x. 1661 550 xxix. 1702 786 xi. 1664 617 xxx. 1703 1194 xii. 1666 641 xxxii. 1709 1202 xiii. 1667 710 xxxiv. 1711 1202 xv. 1671 761 xxxv. 1712 1202 xvi. 1672 761 xxxvi. 1714 1222 xvii. 1674 764 xxxvii 1716 1222 xviii. 1675 803 xxxviii.1718 1300 xix. 1678 769 xxxix. 1721 1300 xx. 1679 1001 xl. 1724 1316 xxii. 1684 1001 xli. 1729 1316 xxiii. 1688 1114 xlii. 1732 1316 xxiv. 1690 1220 xliii. 1733 1316 xxv. 1690 769 xliv. 1736 1316 xxvii. 1693 1124 xlv. 1736? 1316 ii. Frankfurt Editions. Date. Hymns. Date. Hymns 1 1656 503 7 1676 1100 2 1662 606 8 1678 1169 3 1666 731 9 1680 787 4 1668 888 10 1683 254 5 1674 787 11 1693 1246 6 1674 208 12 1700 1246
Of the above the Royal Library, Berlin, possesses eds. xii., xvi., xix., xxiv., xxv., xxvii., xxix., xxxvi., xl, xliii., xlv., and Nos. 3, 4, 7, 9, 11; while the Hamburg Town Library has eds. xi., xviii., xx., xxiii., and Nos. 1, 5, 8, 10. In addition there are in public libraries in Germany the following, viz., eds. xiii., xvii., and Nos. 2, 6, in the Ducal Library, Wolfenbüttel; xv. in Ducal Library, Gotha; iii., xxxv., xxxvii. in Ducal Library, Wernigerode; ed. xliv. in the Royal Library, Munich ; and No. 12 in the Leipzig Town Library. Ed. xxx. is in the Library of the Consistory, Berlin, and xxxiv. in possession of the Church at Börnicke near Nauen. The British Museum has eds. xxiii., xxv., and Nos. 1, 2.
In private hands I find in addition that eds. x., xxviii., xxxix., xli., xlii., are with Professor J. Bachmann, D.D., of Rostock; xxii., xxxviii., Dr. Zahn of Altdorf; xxxii. in my own possession.
3. Geistliche Kirchen-Melodien, &c, Leipzig, 1649 [Library of St. Katherine's Church, Brandenburg]. This contains the first stanzas only of 161 hymns, with music in four vocal and two instrumental parts. It is the earliest source of the first stanzas of various hymns by Gerhardt, Franck, &c.
4. D. M. Luther's und anderer vornehmen geisU reichen und gelehrten Manner Geistliche Lieder und Psalmen, &c, Berlin, 1653 [Hamburg Town Library], with 375 hymns. This was edited by C. Runge, the publisher, and to it Crüger contributed some 37 melodies. It was prepared at the request of Luise Henriette (q.v.), as a book for the joint use of the Lutherans and the Re¬formed, and is the earliest source of the hymns ascribed to her, and of the complete versions of many hymns by Gerhardt and Franck.
5. Psalmodia Sacra, &c, Berlin, 1658 [Royal Library, Berlin]. The first section of this work is in an ed. of A. Lobwasser's German Psalter; the second, with a similar title to No. 4, and the date 1657, is practically a recast of No. 4,146 of those in 1653 being omitted, and the rest of the 319 hymns principally taken from the Praxis of 1656 and the hymn-books of the Bohemian Brethren. New eds. appeared in 1676, 1700, 1704, 1711, and 1736.
[Rev. James Mearns, M.A.]
-- John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907)
Crüger, Johann, p. 271, ii. Dr. J. Zahn, now of Neuendettelsau, in Bavaria, has recently acquired a copy of the 5th ed., Berlin, 1653, of the Praxis.
--John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, Appendix, Part II (1907)
|Texts by Johann Crüger (1)||As||Instances|
|Hearts of stone, relent, relent||John Cruger (Author)||3|